How to choose a cable
The cable assembly can be said to have a large variety of electrical product types like the connector. The same cables used for power or data or signal transmission can have different lengths, diameters, materials, and other specifications. We will provide a cable selection guide in this article to let you know more about some purchasing information.
First, the cable type
When purchasing a cable, it is best to understand the purpose of the cable before choosing a product that meets the relevant specifications.
British Standard Cable:
BS4808-compliant PVC insulated cables are designed for internal wiring of electrical and electronic equipment, but also for wiring in tools and consoles. They also meet the requirements of DEF STAN 61-12 Part 6 and their fire resistance complies with UL 1581 VW-1 and IEC 60332-1.
Cables that comply with BS EN13062 are tinned and annealed copper wires. They are manufactured in accordance with BS4109 specifications and are suitable for replaceable fuses, short-circuits, etc.
British military standard (DEF STAN) cable:
Cables designed to comply with DEF STAN 61-12 Part 29/1 are generally used in demanding applications in the military, aerospace, nuclear, and medical environments. Products that meet the ETFE insulation standard can be used in high-temperature applications and have grease protection.
European standard cable:
The cables complying with European unified standards H05V-K and H07V-K are non-tinned copper single-core stranded wires with color-coded PVC sheath. European standard cables are widely used in lighting, control and distribution control panels, ducts, channels, and winding installation projects embedded in walls or plasterboard. The Uniform Color Code was introduced in 2004 to clearly show the different wires in single-phase and three-phase circuits.
US Military Standard (MIL SPEC) cable:
The MIL-W-81822 / 13 military-compliant cable is a single-core cable with PVC or PTFE insulation and is designed for use in harsh environments such as aerospace or similar industries with high resistance to chemical corrosion and radiation. Military standard cables can be used for welding or winding, suitable for high temperature and high frequency applications, and are the choice for environments requiring greater durability.
UL standard cable:
UL standard cables comply with test classifications established by Underwriters Laboratories. The UL standard cable is a single-core stranded wire with four sheath structures with different monochromatic sheaths. A wide range of UL standard wires on the market, and UL's rating of the product can determine the scope of application of the cable. Cables that comply with the UL classification system have been individually tested and found to be suitable for a variety of applications, such as general-purpose winding circuits, control circuits, and internal wiring of electrical appliances.
Tri-gauge cable is a flexible single-core stranded wire with high temperature and fire resistance PVC sheath. Sheath color is in accordance with H05V-K and H07V-K European unified color code standards. "Three regulations" refers to British BS 6231, Canadian CSA TEW and American UL 1015, 1028 or 1283 specifications. Tri-gauge cables are certified worldwide and are therefore cables with high demand worldwide. It can be used for high voltage winding of electric box, switch winding, rectifier and motor starting circuit.
CY cables are shielded flexible cables that are generally used in applications that require interference-free transmission. These cables have multi-core flexible conductors, tinned copper braid, and PET insulation to protect the cables from external electromagnetic waves. CY cable is suitable for flexible applications that require short-term movement without tensile stress, and also suitable for outdoor applications with UV protection; indoor applications that are dry, humid, or even oily water mixtures. CY cables are produced according to the VDE 2050 standard and have 3/4/5/7 cores. The color of the outer sheath of each core is in accordance with European uniform color code standards.
SY cable is identified as a reinforced flexible control cable. Its strength and durability come from galvanized steel braid, which is stronger than CY and YY cables. SY cables are widely used in industrial applications and can be used in industrial applications that require arbitrary movement without tensile stress. SY cable has 2 cores to 25 types, and the color of the outer sheath of each core is in accordance with European uniform color code standards. It is suitable for indoor environment with wet and dry or even oil and water, but not for outdoor applications.
YY cable is a PVC sheathed, highly flexible, unshielded, multi-core power and signal control cable for a variety of industrial applications. It can be used in outdoor applications with direct sunlight protection, as well as in dry or wet indoor environments. Its rugged PVC outer sheath protects the cable from light mechanical and thermal shocks. YY cable is available in 3 to 18 core types, with colors including green / yellow and a variety of differently coded black cores.
YY control cables are not suitable for fixed winding applications requiring compliance with BS7671 specifications.
3. Power cord
A variety of power cables are designed for a range of applications including home appliances, tools and fixtures. Both single-core and multi-core cables have PVC, rubber or CPE sheathing options, and are compliant with the HAR unified color code standard system, CE marking and RoHS specifications. These cables are manufactured in accordance with ISO9001 standards, and some are certified by BASEC or other standards.
Steel Wire Armoured (SWA) is a cable that uses a PVC sheath and has galvanized steel to surround the insulated power core. They are mostly used for underground cable wiring and are suitable for indoor, outdoor, and underground installations. Sheaths made of PVC or LSZH are suitable for applications requiring low smoke. All cables are RoHS compliant and manufactured in accordance with ISO 9001 standards, and provide a BASEC certified product line.
A rigid standard distribution cable used in closed systems, lighting devices, switches and controllers. Conduit wire is suitable for indoor electrical wiring and can be used in environments with moderate mechanical stress. Available in PVC or low-halogen LSZH sheath options. All cables are RoHS compliant and manufactured in accordance with ISO 9001 standards, and provide a BASEC certified product line.
Lighting and electrical cables:
A series of multi-core indoor wiring cables are suitable for a variety of applications. The lighting and electrical cable series has a low-smoke and flame-resistant LSZH sheathed cable option, suitable for environments where smoke can pose a danger; and the PVC sheathed version is suitable for general electrical wiring. The PVC cables are RoHS compliant and certified by BASC. All cables are produced in accordance with ISO 9001 standards.
A range of high-performance shielded or unshielded PVC sheathed cables are suitable for a variety of applications such as industrial process control and computer peripheral wiring. Shielding and braiding help reduce external interference. Product lines complying with UL, CSA, and British Military Standard specifications to meet wiring environment requirements. All series are RoHS compliant and produced in accordance with ISO 9001 standards.
4. Communication cable
Multi-pair / twisted pair:
Multi-pair wires provide high-performance windings for different applications such as industrial process control, computer peripherals, and medical electronics. Shielding and editing options can reduce interference in critical applications. All series are equipped with UL and CSA-compliant product lines, and are RoHS-compliant and manufactured in accordance with ISO 9001 standards.
Local area network (LAN) cables:
LAN cables, also known as Cat cables or Ethernet cables, are twisted-pair cables and are used for signal transmission in structured computer network systems. They can also be used for telephone and video applications. Twisted pair helps reduce crosstalk between conductors, with effects similar to shielding and braiding. Various jacket material options such as low smoke types are available to meet the needs of different applications.
Optical cables: Optical cables have various distribution types:
Single-mode OS1 / 2 and multi-mode OM1 and OM3 are used for high-speed data manipulation and transmission of communication protocols such as Ethernet or token ring. All fiber optic cables are suitable for indoor and outdoor environments, and have the advantages of waterproof, fireproof and anti-rat bite. The buffered optical cable has a protective layer of glass wire for higher strength.
Coaxial cables are designed for communication applications from the ground to wired wires, enabling long-distance transmission of signals and avoiding interference. The two-wire, micro-wire, and live versions are available in a variety of jacket materials such as halogen-free LSZF.
Second, key considerations
European Classification Standard:
CPR Construction Product Specification-From July 1, 2017, all construction cables sold in the European Union for fixed installations will be regulated by the CPR specification. Products that have been tested and proven to be effective are given a European classification rating based on the "combustion response", and a Declaration of Effectiveness (DOP) and a new CE mark for product packaging are issued.
Note: Fire-resistant cables are temporarily not included in the scope of CPR management until the "fire-resistant" product standard is issued.
General Reference-The General Reference System, or HAR for short, is used to identify products that conform to European harmonized standards established by the European standardization agency CENELEC. CENELEC is a technology-neutral organization whose goal is to improve standards and quality in Europe to achieve a unified standard product trade. HAR cables have a coding system that complies with the specifications listed in the HD 361 and DIN VDE 0292 harmonization documents.
Cable sizes AWG and CSA-AWG is short for American cable specifications. It is a widely recognized unit of measurement for cable cross-section ranges. CSA is the English abbreviation of the cross section, which shows the area of the wire, usually expressed in mm2. Both are used to display the thickness of the cable. The larger the AWG value, the thinner the cable, that is, the smaller the CSA value. The comprehensive AWG cable size range includes more than 40 sizes and has current carrying capacity in different cross-sectional areas.
Core Type-There are two types of solid cores and stranded cores. The solid core has only one conductor (usually copper) and is insulated. It has a large resistance to bending and is the best choice for fixed or semi-fixed winding. The production cost of solid core cable is also low, and it has a large electrical resistance. Twisted core cables are softer than solid cables of the same size and suitable for applications that require frequent bending or vibration, such as signal wiring for automobiles, electrical and electronic equipment, flexible cables, and so on. Due to its large attenuation characteristics, stranded wires are not suitable for long-distance wiring.
Third, electrical shielding
Cable shielding is an important requirement in many wiring applications. Shielding protects the wires from electromagnetic waves (EMI) or other external interference, prevents radiation from the cables themselves, and helps reduce crosstalk between the wires.
The degree of shielding varies depending on the type of cable and the type of application. Unshielded power or control cables can be used in environments without interference sources (such as in metal control boxes), while metal film or braided shielded cables can be used in places with high EMI or electrical interference.
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